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In the Beginning Russia's first human beings arrived in Alaska between 15,000 and 13,000 BC.
At that time Alaska was part of a land bridge that extended across to Siberia. People followed the herds of animals they hunted. In the era in the 18th century, Europeans arrived. In 1741 a man known as Vitus Bering led a Russian expedition to Alaska. During this expedition, they discovered there was great wealth in the form of animal furs in Alaska. Unfortunately, they also brought diseases that the native people had no immunity to. The British arrived in 1778 when Captain Cook sailed there. (Cook Inlet is named after him). George Vancouver sailed to Alaska in 1794.
Amsterdam, the greatest planned city of northern Europe, has always been a well-known name in world history and played a central role in the history of the Netherlands. In the 17th century Amsterdam was the centre of world economy, and nowadays the city is known for its tolerant character.
The country’s name comes from the Latin word for silver, argentum, and Argentina is indeed a great source of valuable minerals. More important, however, has been Argentina’s production of livestock and cereals, for which it once ranked among the world’s wealthiest nations. Much of this agricultural activity is set in the Pampas, rich grasslands that were once the domain of nomadic Native Americans, followed by rough-riding gauchos, who were in turn forever enshrined in the nation’s romantic literature.
Arizona was originally a part of the Mexican state of Sonora before being taken over by the United States in 1848 as a result of the Mexican-American War. It started as part of the Territory of New Mexico but split into its own territory in 1863. Arizona became a state in 1912, beginning mainly as a rural area depending on agriculture, but during the 1940s, the state saw a boom in population as people began to appreciate the warm climate.
As Europe's oldest capital and one of the world's oldest cities, Athens is an innovative, beautiful place rich in history. The city is known for being the home of Plato, the famous Athenian philosopher. It also is home to many sculptures of ancient Gods and landmarks.
Athens is full of historical landmarks and preserved areas. In 2011, the city's population was around 665,000. However, its smaller size hasn't hindered Athens from staying innovative. The city is referred to as Europe's Capital of Innovation.
Auckland, New Zealand
Full of dormant volcanoes and surrounded by breathtaking coastlines, there is so much adventure to behold in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Known as the "City of Sails," you'll likely see boats and water activities of all kinds being enjoyed no matter where you go along the shores. Auckland has so much beauty and excitement just waiting to be discovered by travelers. It is a must-see city that creates lasting memories, especially for adrenaline junkies.
Fifty million years ago the Australian continent broke away from the great southern landmass of Gondwanaland, which comprised South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica. Apart from a period during the last Ice Age when the sea level was 100-meters lower than it is today, Australia existed in isolation. This resulted in the evolution of vegetation and wildlife which is substantially unique.
The Lucayan people first settled in the Bahamas before Christopher Columbus arrived on San Salvador island in 1492. After centuries of disease and unrest, the first permanent settlement in the Bahamas was founded in 1647 by religious refugees. In 1717 the Bahamas became a British Colony and subsequently became a hide and hangout for famous pirates such as Blackbeard.
While Bangkok is typically known for its risky late-night behaviors in the red-light districts, there's more to it than meets the eye. The capital of Thailand also has a rich history and a vibrant culture, along with beautiful natural elements and astonishing architecture. Once you visit, it's easy to see why and how around 9-million people reside in the metropolis, also known by its ceremonial name, Krungthepmahanakhon Amonrattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokphop Noppharatratchathaniburirom Udomratchaniwetmahasathan Amonphimanawatansathit Sakkathattiyawitsanukamprasit.
Barcelona, city, seaport, and capital of Barcelona Provincia (province) and of Catalonia Comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northeastern Spain, located 90-miles (150-km) south of the French border. It is Spain’s major Mediterranean port and commercial center and is famed for its individuality, cultural interest, and physical beauty.
Around the 3rd century BC, the area that is now Belgium was a part of Gaul, and the Belgae tribes inhabited it. Many believe the name Belgium originates from the name of these tribes. One of the things most hotly debated about these tribes of people is whether they were Germanic, Celtic, or a mix of the two. The Belgae people were considered the bravest of all the tribes in Gaul. This bravery was exemplified to Julius Caesar, as it took him four years to conquer them. He finally did in 53 BC.
Brazil is the only Latin American nation that derives its language and culture from Portugal. The native inhabitants mostly consisted of the nomadic Tupí-Guaraní Indians. Adm. Pedro Álvares Cabral claimed the territory for Portugal in 1500. The early explorers brought back a wood that produced a red dye, pau-brasil, from which the land received its name. Portugal began colonization in 1532 and made the area a royal colony in 1549.
Budapest, the capital of Hungary, was created in 1873 by the merger of three cities: Buda, Óbuda, and Pest. It is the administrative, cultural, scientific, economic, trade and transportation center with about 2-million inhabitants. The town spreads on the banks of the river Danube and is administratively divided into 23 districts, 16 of which are located on the Pest side, 6 in Buda and 1 on Csepel Island in the Danube. Buda extends to the hills on the west bank of the Danube and Pest on the left bank of the river in the lowlands. In Buda, the 235-m high hill (Gellért-hegy) rises from the river bank and offers a remarkable view of the whole city.
In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan was the first European to see Chile. In 1540 Pedro de Valdivia a Spanish conquistador came to Chile where he founded several cities, despite resistance from the Araucanians. One of these cities he founded was Santiago, which is now Chile's capital and largest city. In 1553 the Native Americans led several successful revolts against the Spanish conquerors, killing Valdivia and devastating most of the cities he founded. This lead to nearly 100 years of warfare. Eventually, the Spanish dominated, but even then strife and conflicts continued for many more years.
In many ways, Curaçao is the historical nexus of the Netherlands Antilles. The island, with its large and protected natural port, was charted before the 16th century and eventually became a significant center for mercantile commerce. It is the birthplace of Papiamentu (as it is spelled on Curaçao), the polyglot lingua franca of the ABC Islands which is spoken to an extent as far north as the Netherlands Antilles islands of Sint Eustatius, Saba, and Sint Maarten. And the island is, on another level, the birthplace of the famous liqueur, Curaçao, perhaps more well known in some circles than the island itself.
Dubai enjoys a rich heritage, with Dubai history going back to prehistoric times, although the Emirate itself is much more modern. The biggest changes in the history of Dubai have come since the discovery of oil around 50-years-ago.
Florence was founded as a Roman military colony by Julius Caesar in 59 BC and even served as Italy's capital from 1865– 1870. During the 14th–16th century, Florence achieved prominence in commerce and finance, learning, and especially the arts.
Over the centuries, the Greek islands have been the stepping stones between North Africa, Asia Minor and Europe, across which warriors, tradesmen, conquerors and even civilisations have hopped. Since ancient times the islands have been fought over and claimed as prizes by successive invaders. Their strategic location, in a seafaring world, made many islands prosperous and autonomous trading centres. Some were run by foreign masters, as evidenced by the Venetian ports, Roman aqueducts and Frankish castles found on the islands today.
The bustling metropolis that is Hong Kong holds over 7-million people within its borders in southern China. This lively, crowded city is rich in history, culture, and entertainment. Known as a unique administrative region, it maintains separate government and economic systems from the rest of the country. With on the most thriving economies, investing and international trade is massive in Hong Kong.
Iceland was the last European country to be settled, mostly by Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. They came mainly from Norway and elsewhere in Scandinavia, and from the Norse settlements in the British Isles, from where a Celtic element was also introduced. The language and culture of Iceland were predominantly Scandinavian from the outset, but there are traces of Celtic influence in some of the ancient poetry, in some personal names and in the appearance of present-day Icelanders.
Caught in the ebb and flow of the last Ice Ages over the previous 2-million-years, Ireland was at various times mostly glaciated and completely land-locked as a part of the continent of Europe. Ireland was an island about 125,000-years-ago when the sea level appears to have been very close to its present position. The sea level dropped 130-meters (426-feet) or more during the interval from around 30,000 to 15,000 years-ago when Ireland became part of continental Europe again. Sea levels have generally been rising ever since, albeit at a much slower rate.
The Republic of Kenya, located in East Africa, borders the Indian Ocean and has nearly 50-million people. Its largest and capital city is Nairobi. Before you go on safari, here's everything you need to know about the country to prepare for a fantastic visit.
Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in western Europe. After the Celts settled in the region, it was found by the Phoenicians. They established a settlement called Ulissipo, which was then conquered by the Greeks and Carthaginians. In 205 BC, the Romans won the Second Punic War against the Carthaginians and occupied the city, calling it Olissipo. Ancient Lisbon was integrated into the Roman province of Lusitania, but when the Roman Empire collapsed, it was invaded by Germanic tribes and was controlled by the Kingdom of the Suebi until 585.
Its name is derived from the Celtic word Londinios, which means “The Place of the Bold One”. It was the Romans who were responsible for the city we know today as London. The strategic location of the city allowed the Romans easy access to Europe, and the River Thames provided ample water supply. They invaded Britain in AD 43, and soon afterwards founded the city of Londinium.
From the ice age to the Viking era to the present day, Norway has a long, rich history. The earliest signs of settlement in Norway date as far back as 4000 BC.
However, it wasn't until the Viking Age began in 793 AD that Scandinavians and Vikings began to expand through trade and colonization.
Peru is a very old country. The earliest inhabitants arrived there about 15,000-years-ago. Societies emerged on the west coast more than 5,000-years-ago and began to spread inland. These included the Chavín, the Moche, and the Nasca.
The Philippines is named after King Philip II of Spain (1556-1598) and it was a Spanish colony for over 300-years. Today the Philippines is an archipelago of 7,000 islands. However it is believed that during the last ice age they were joined to mainland Asia by a land bridge, enabling human beings to walk from there.
Rome is the capital city of Italy, the home of the Vatican and the Papacy, and was once the center of a vast, ancient empire. It remains a cultural and historical focus within Europe.
San Diego, California, USA
When he sailed into San Diego Bay from Mexico, Spaniard Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovered the city of San Diego in 1542. Cabrillo claimed the area for the Spanish Empire. The permanent colonization of California never occurred until 1769, when a chain of explorers from Spain began exploring parts of the state.
San Francisco, California, USA
San Francisco was founded in 1835 by Willaim Richardson. A small settlement of approximately 800 people quickly grew in size and popularity when gold was discovered in 1848. People from all over the country quickly flocked to San Francisco during what is now known as the California Gold Rush. In the years to follow, San Francisco was destroyed by a fire and earthquakes that required the city to rebuild, but the well-established industries kept the city alive. Today, San Francisco is a thriving multicultural city known for its history and innovations.
Shanghai, China, has grown from a fishing village to a bustling metropolis. Its coastal location led it to become a port during the rule of the Eastern Jin and Tang dynasties. The Southern Song Dynasty elevated Shanghai from village to market town in 1074. It was named a city in 1291, thanks to the Yuang rulers. Shanghai's original name was Hudu, derived from the word that describes wooden fish traps.
Singapore is a sovereign island in Southeast Asia. Just off southern Malaysia, Singapore serves as a financial center with a multinational population. With its beautiful tropical climate, the island is a rapidly growing city-state with striking natural elements.
South Africa is the world's 25th largest landmass and Southern Africa's biggest nation. The country is so big that it has three capitals, Cape Town, Bloemfontein and Pretoria. South Africa is the biggest manufacturer of platinum, gold, vanadium, alumino-silicates, manganese, and chromium. It is also the home to over 850 species of birds and 300 exotic mammal species, including giraffes, buffalo, cheetahs, and warthogs. Over 55-million people also inhabit the nation.
St Petersburg, Russia
St. Petersburg is the second-greatest major city in Russia next to Moscow. By 2012, there were nearly 5-million residents in the town, and that population has only continued to increase. Surrounded by the Baltic Sea and located along the Neva River, there's so much beauty to behold. Visiting St. Petersburg, you'll see luscious gardens, monuments, palaces, detailed architecture, and admirable pieces of artwork created by the most well-known artists throughout history.
The history of Stockholm, capital of Sweden, for many centuries coincided with the development of what is today known as Gamla stan, the Stockholm Old Town. Stockholm's raison d'être always was to be the Swedish capital and by far the largest city in the country. Stockholm is the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 965,232 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6-million in the urban area, and 2.4-million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Outside the city to the east, and along the coast, is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.
Known for video games, anime, and electronics, Tokyo is a vibrant, colorful city with lots of energy. Expect to see market filled streets, lots of lights, and a ton of people. Tokyo has a predicted 14-million people living in its borders. Vanishing in to the city for some shopping and photography is an everyday activity among the residents of Tokyo.
Venice has a history that spans thousands of years, but that history, technically took place before the city was known as Venice. Venice, as the tradition of the town goes, was founded in 421 A.D. Throughout its history, Venice has seen a lot of things. Venice was originally a part of and controlled by the Byzantine Empire.